1. Copyright for administrators
Table of Contents:
1. The law 2. Public domain 3. Fair use 4. Print materials in schools 5. Audiovisual materials in schools 6. Music materials in schools (print and recorded) 7. Multimedia in schools 8. Distance learning in schools 9. Internet in schools 10. Computer software in schools 11. Copyright policies.
2. The Handbook of Business Valuation and Intellectual Property Analysis
Table of Contents:
Part I - Business Valuation Technical Topics Chapter 1-The Equity Risk Premium Chapter 2-The Discount for Lack of Control and the Ownership Control Premium—A Matter of Economics, Not Averages Chapter 3-Valuation of C Corporations Having Built-in Gains Chapter 4-The S Corporation Economic Adjustment Chapter 5-Applying the Income Approach to S Corporation and Other Pass-Through Entity Valuations Chapter 6-S Corporation ESOP Valuation Issues Part II - Business Valuation Special Applications Chapter 7-The Valuation of Family Limited Partnerships Chapter 8-Fairness Opinions: Common Errors and Omissions Chapter 9-Valuing a Canadian Business for a U.S. Purchaser: Canadian Laws to Be Considered Chapter 10-Sports Team Valuation and Sports Venue Feasibility Chapter 11-Health Care Entity Valuation Part III - Advanced Business Valuation Issues Chapter 12-Three Peas in the Business Valuation Pod: The ReSource-Based View of the Firm, Value Creation, and Strategy Chapter 13-Differences between Economic Damages Analysis and Business Valuation Part IV - Intellectual Property Valuation Issues Chapter 14-Intellectual Property Income Projections: Approaches and Methods Chapter 15-Intellectual Property Discount Rates and Capitalization Rates Chapter 16-Intellectual Property Life Estimation Approaches and Methods Chapter 17-Intellectual Property Residual Value Analysis Chapter 18-Intellectual Property Ad Valorem Case Study Chapter 19-Licensing of Intellectual Property Case Study Part V - Intellectual Property Transfer Price Analysis Issues Chapter 20-Transfer Pricing Considerations in Estimating Fair Market Value Chapter 21-Intangible Asset Intercompany Transfer Pricing Analyses Chapter 22-Transfer Pricing Case Study Part VI - Intellectual Property Economic Damages Issues Chapter 23-Research Techniques for an Intellectual Property Economic Analysis Chapter 24-Intellectual Property Economic Damages Case Study
3. The handbook of European intellectual property management : developing, managing, and protecting your company's intellectual property
Table of Contents:
1.1 Europe's IP architecture -- 1.2 The strategic role of IP in European business -- 1.3 IP in the knowledge economy -- 1.4 IP and open innovation -- 1.5 Managing patents as assets -- 1.5Europe's different IP cultures 2.1 Patents -- 2.2 Trademarks --2.3 Copyright in Europe -- 2.4 designs -- 2.5 Utility models -- 2.6 Trade secrets 3.1 Innovation rights -- 3.2 Building an international knowledge business -- 3.3 IP and proof of concept -- 3.4 Business-university collaboration -- 3.5 Managing IP in collaborative ventures -- 3.6 Licensing as a growth strategy in Europe -- 3.7 Innovation support in Europe 4.1 Creating a patent position in Europe -- 4.2 European patents: differents from the United States -- 4.3 Prior art searching -- 4.4 Portfolio building -- 4.5 Patents exceptions -- 4.6 Patent clearances -- 4.7 Patents on a budget 5.1 Issues in European copyright -- 5.2 Copyight and the digital economy -- 5.3 Digital policy management -- 5.4 Digital distribution and Creative Commons 6.1 Taking products and services to market across Europe -- 6.2 Managing brand and design portfolios in Europe -- 6.3 Building a strong (European)trade mark -- 6.4 defending brands -- 7.1 Intellectual assets management -- 7.2 Inventions by employees -- 7.3 IP and the web -- 7.4 Database rights 8.1 Valuing IP, intangibles and goodwill -- 8.2 Brand valuation -- 8.3 The monetization of intellectual property -- 8.4 Patent evaluation 9.1 Raising finance through IP -- 9.2 Investors and IP risks -- 9.3 IP and acquisitions -- 9.4 IP and private equity 10.1 Germany – 10.2. The United Kingdom – 10.3. France – 10.4. Italy – 10.5. Spain – 10.6. The Nordic countries – 10.7. Benelux – 10.8. Ireland – 10.9. The accession states 11.1 Litigation strategies for European IP registered rights -- 11.2 Differences in patent litigation -- 11.3 Opposition at he European Patent Office -- 11.4 IP assurance
4. Handbook on the International Exchange of Publication, 5th ed.
Table of Contents:
Practises Sources of documents p. 13 Types of exchange p. 13 Academic publications p. 14 Commercially issued publications p. 17 Official publications p. 17 Publications of international organisations p. 19 Grey literature p. 22 Other exchange materials p. 23 Organisation and methods p. 27 Establishment of new exchange relations p. 27 Replies to offers p. 28 Replies to requests p. 28 Inquiries p. 28 Dispatching p. 29 Sending of publications p. 29 Recording of exchanges p. 29 Practical organisational procedures p. 30 Transport p. 31 Customs p. 33 International framework of exchanges p. 37 Conventions and agreements for the exchange of publications p. 37 Texts of intergovernmental agreements for the international exchange of publications p.37 The role of Unesco p. 46 The role of IFLA p. 46 History and examples of our days History of the international exchange of publications p. 49 The international exchange of publications as an acquisition method in academic and special libraries : the case of Finland revisited p. 69 Present state and future of the international exchange of publications in the national diet library in Japan p. 79 The exchange of academic publications in Senegal p. 85 International book exchange : has it any future in the electronic age? : a view from the Russian National Library, St. Petersburg p. 95 Library exchanges in our changing world : reviving the discussion with snapshots of exchanges in fine arts, university and special libraries in the USA and Canada p. 101 Directory Organisations and functions of the exchange centres with a national responsibility p. 109 List of exchange centres and libraries with national responsibility p. 115
5. Information sources in patents
Table of Contents:
Principles of patenting - The European patent system - The United States patent system - The Japanese patent system - Major national and regional patent systems. Canada. France. Germany. Italy. United Kingdom. Russian Federation The Patent Co-operation Treaty Patent guides and libraries National and international patent information sources - Common search types I: alerting searches Common search types II: patentability and freedom-to-operate searches Common search types III: portfolio and legal status searches Commercial intelligence Specialist techniques Future developments
6. Publishing in China: An Essential Guide
Table of Contents:
1. Overview. 2. The Book Publishing Industry in the Chinese Mainland. 3. Magazine Publishing in the Chinese Mainland. 4. Audio-Video and Electronic Publishing, and Publishing Research in the Chinese Mainland. 5. Book Distribution in the Chinese Mainland. 6. The Publishing Industry of Taiwan. 7. The Publishing Industry of Hong Kong and Macau. 8. Copyright Trade after China Joined the Berne Convention. 9. Sino-Foreign Book Copyright Trade. 10. Foreign Investment in Chinas Publishing Industry. 11. Market Entry and Survival Strategies. Appendices.
7. Copyright for Schools: A Practical Guide
Table of Contents:
1.The law -- 2.Public domain -- 3.Fair use -- 4.Print materials in schools -- 5.Audiovisual materials in schools -- 6.Music materials in schools (print and recorded) -- 7.Multimedia in schools -- 8.Distance learning in schools -- 9.Internet in schools -- 10.Computer software in schools -- 11.School library exemptions -- 12.Permissions -- 13.Managing copyright in schools -- 14.Copyright and administrators -- 15.Copyright policies -- 16.Appendices.
8. Copyright catechism : practical answers to everyday school dilemmas
Table of Contents:
1.Ownership of copyright 2.Print materials 3.Graphic materials 4.Sound recordings and music 5.Video and film 6.Multimedia, software, and distance learning 7.Management of copyright 8.Permissions issues.
9. Patents for Business: The Manager's Guide to Scope, Strategy, and Due Diligence
Table of Contents:
1.Being prepared for due diligence 2.What is patentable? : mining the technology platform 3.The power to exclude : claim scope and strategy 4.Monopoly or maze? : the board game approach to claim analyses 5.Identifying prior art : the first step in determining patentability 6.Novelty and nonobviousness : the second step in determining patentability 7.Freedom to operate 8.Patent portfolio referencing 9.Multinational patent filing 10.Inventors, joint inventors, and unwilling inventors 11.Interim protection for inventions : nondisclosure agreements and provisional patent applications.
10. Patent Law Essentials: A Concise Guide: Third Edition
Table of Contents:
1.OVERVIEW 2.Patents distinguished 3.Reading a patent 4.Patentable subject matter 5.Patent prosecution 6.Ownership and other rights 7.Interpreting patent claims 8.Conditions of patentability 9.Enforceability defenses 10.Infringement 11.Patent litigation 12.Special topics.
11. Intellectual Property: A Reference Handbook
Table of Contents:
1.Background and history 2.Problems, controversies, and solutions 3.Worldwide perspective 4.Chronology 5.People and organizations 6.Data and documents 7.Directory of organizations 8.Resources.
12. Green Energy: An A-to-Z Guide 綠色能源
Table of Contents:
About the Editors vii Introduction ix Reader's Guide xiii List of Articles xv List of Contributors xvii Green Energy Chronology xxi Articles A to Z 1–464 Green Energy Glossary 465 Green Energy Resource Guide 475 Green Energy Appendix 481 Index 485
13. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Rev. ed. 2V 基因遺傳學百科
Table of Contents:
volume I- Aggression-Hybridization and imtrogression Publisher’s Note ............... vii Preface to the Revised Edition ............... ix Preface to the First Edition ............... xiii Contributor List ............... xv Alphabetical List of Contents ............... xix Aggression ............... 1 Aging ............... 3 Albinism ............... 9 Alcoholism ............... 11 Allergies ............... 13 Altruism ............... 16 Alzheimer’s Disease ............... 19 Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus Sampling ............... 23 Ancient DNA ............... 27 Animal Cloning ............... 31 Anthrax ............... 35 Antibodies ............... 38 Antisense RNA ............... 42 Archaea ............... 45 Artificial Selection ............... 48 Autoimmune Disorders ............... 51 Bacterial Genetics and Cell Structure ............... 54 Bacterial Resistance and Super Bacteria ............... 61 Behavior ............... 65 Biochemical Mutations ............... 70 Bioethics ............... 73 Biofertilizers ............... 77 Bioinformatics ............... 79 Biological Clocks ............... 83 Biological Determinism ............... 86 Biological Weapons ............... 88 Biopesticides ............... 92 Biopharmaceuticals ............... 96 Blotting: Southern, Northern, and Western ............... 98 Breast Cancer ............... 101 Burkitt’s Lymphoma ............... 106 Cancer ............... 109 cDNA Libraries ............... 115 Cell Culture: Animal Cells ............... 117 Cell Culture: Plant Cells ............... 120 The Cell Cycle ............... 122 Cell Division ............... 125 Central Dogma of Molecular Biology ............... 128 Chemical Mutagens ............... 131 Chloroplast Genes ............... 133 Cholera ............... 137 Chromatin Packaging ............... 140 Chromosome Mutation ............... 144 Chromosome Structure ............... 147 Chromosome Theory of Heredity ............... 152 Chromosome Walking and Jumping ............... 158 Classical Transmission Genetics ............... 160 Cloning ............... 166 Cloning: Ethical Issues ............... 170 Cloning Vectors ............... 174 Color Blindness ............... 179 Complementation Testing ............... 181 Complete Dominance ............... 184 Congenital Defects ............... 187 Consanguinity and Genetic Disease ............... 191 Criminality ............... 193 Cystic Fibrosis ............... 195 Cytokinesis ............... 198 Developmental Genetics ............... 201 Diabetes ............... 207 Dihybrid Inheritance ............... 210 Diphtheria ............... 214 DNA Fingerprinting ............... 216 DNA Isolation ............... 220 DNA Repair ............... 223 DNA Replication ............... 227 DNA Sequencing Technology ............... 233 DNA Structure and Function ............... 237 Down Syndrome ............... 244 Dwarfism ............... 248 Emerging Diseases ............... 252 Epistasis ............... 255 Eugenics ............... 259 Page vi | Top of Article Eugenics: Nazi Germany ............... 264 Evolutionary Biology ............... 267 Extrachromosomal Inheritance ............... 274 Forensic Genetics ............... 279 Fragile X Syndrome ............... 282 Gel Electrophoresis ............... 285 Gender Identity ............... 287 Gene Families ............... 289 Gene Regulation: Bacteria ............... 291 Gene Regulation: Eukaryotes ............... 295 Gene Regulation:Lac Operon ............... 298 Gene Regulation: Viruses ............... 301 Gene Therapy ............... 304 Gene Therapy: Ethical and Economic Issues ............... 309 Genetic Code ............... 313 Genetic Code, Cracking of ............... 319 Genetic Counseling ............... 321 Genetic Engineering ............... 326 Genetic Engineering: Agricultural Applications ............... 332 Genetic Engineering: Historical Development ............... 335 Genetic Engineering: Industrial Applications ............... 339 Genetic Engineering: Medical Applications ............... 343 Genetic Engineering: Risks ............... 347 Genetic Engineering: Social and Ethical Issues ............... 351 Genetic Load ............... 354 Genetic Screening ............... 357 Genetic Testing ............... 360 Genetic Testing: Ethical and Economic Issues ............... 364 Genetically Modified (GM)Foods ............... 366 Genetics, Historical Development of ............... 370 Genetics in Television and Films ............... 376 Genome Size ............... 378 Genomic Libraries ............... 380 Genomics ............... 384 Hardy-Weinberg Law ............... 389 Heart Disease ............... 392 Hemophilia ............... 396 Hereditary Diseases ............... 399 Heredity and Environment ............... 406 Hermaphrodites ............... 411 High-Yield Crops ............... 413 Homeotic Genes ............... 416 Homosexuality ............... 419 Human Genetics ............... 421 Human Genome Project ............... 428 Human Growth Hormone ............... 432 Huntington’s Disease ............... 434 Hybridization and Introgression ............... 437 volume II – Hybridomas and Monoclonal Antibodies-XYY Alphabetical List of Contents ............... xxxi Hybridomas and Monoclonal Antibodies ............... 441 Hypercholesterolemia ............... 445 Icelandic Genetic Database ............... 447 Immunogenetics ............... 449 In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer ............... 454 Inborn Errors of Metabolism ............... 458 Inbreeding and Assortative Mating ............... 461 Incomplete Dominance ............... 465 Infertility ............... 468 Insurance ............... 471 Intelligence ............... 474 Klinefelter Syndrome ............... 479 Knockout Genetics and Knockout Mice ............... 481 Lactose Intolerance ............... 484 Lamarckianism ............... 485 Lateral Gene Transfer ............... 489 Linkage Maps ............... 491 Mendelian Genetics ............... 494 Metafemales ............... 499 Miscegenation and Antimiscegenation Laws ............... 501 Mitochondrial Diseases ............... 503 Mitochondrial Genes ............... 505 Mitosis and Meiosis ............... 509 Model Organism: Arabidopsis thaliana ............... 513 Model Organism: Caenorhabditis elegans ............... 516 Model Organism: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ............... 520 Model Organism: Drosophila melanogaster ............... 522 Model Organism: Escherichia coli ............... 527 Model Organism: Mus musculus ............... 533 Model Organism: Neurospora crassa ............... 536 Model Organism: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ............... 539 Model Organism: Xenopus laevis ............... 542 Model Organisms ............... 545 Molecular Clock Hypothesis ............... 547 Molecular Genetics ............... 549 Monohybrid Inheritance ............... 555 Multiple Alleles ............... 559 Mutation and Mutagenesis ............... 561 Natural Selection ............... 568 Neural Tube Defects ............... 572 Noncoding RNA Molecules ............... 575 Nondisjunction and Aneuploidy ............... 579 Oncogenes ............... 583 One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis ............... 586 Organ Transplants and HLA Genes ............... 588 Parthenogenesis ............... 592 Patents on Life-Forms ............... 594 Paternity Tests ............... 596 Pedigree Analysis ............... 599 Penetrance ............... 602 Phenylketonuria (PKU) ............... 604 Plasmids ............... 606 Polygenic Inheritance ............... 609 Polymerase Chain Reaction ............... 611 Polyploidy ............... 613 Population Genetics ............... 617 Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes ............... 623 Prenatal Diagnosis ............... 626 Prion Diseases: Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome ............... 631 Protein Structure ............... 634 Protein Synthesis ............... 638 Proteomics ............... 643 Pseudogenes ............... 646 Psedohermaphrodites ............... 648 Punctuated Equilibrium ............... 650 Quantitative Inheritance ............... 654 Race ............... 658 Repetitive DNA ............... 664 Restriction Enzymes ............... 667 Reverse Transcriptase ............... 670 RFLP Analysis ............... 672 RNA Isolation ............... 674 RNA Structure and Function ............... 676 RNA Transcription and mRNA Processing ............... 681 RNA World ............... 686 Shotgun Cloning ............... 691 Sickle-Cell Disease ............... 692 Signal Transduction ............... 696 Smallpox ............... 700 Sociobiology ............... 704 Speciation ............... 708 Stem Cells ............... 710 Sterilization Laws ............... 715 Steroid Hormones ............... 717 Swine Flu ............... 720 Synthetic Antibodies ............... 723 Synthetic Genes ............... 725 Tay-Sachs Disease ............... 727 Telomeres ............... 728 Testicular Feminization Syndrome ............... 731 Thalidomide and Other Teratogens ............... 733 Totipotency ............... 736 Transgenic Organisms ............... 739 Transposable Elements ............... 742 Tumor-Suppressor Genes ............... 746 Turner Syndrome ............... 748 Twin Studies ............... 750 Viral Genetics ............... 754 Viroids and Virusoids ............... 756 X Chromosome Inactivation ............... 759 Xenotransplants ............... 761 XYY Syndrome ............... 764 Appendices Biographical Dictionary of Important Geneticists ............... 767 Nobel Prizes for Discoveries in Genetics ............... 780 Time Line of Major Developments in Genetics ............... 784 Glossary ............... 804 Bibliography ............... 832 Web Sites ............... 859 Indexes Category Index ............... III Personages Index ............... VII Subject Index ............... XI
14. Handbook of Physics 物理手冊
Table of Contents:
Preface v Contributors xxiii Part I Mechanics 1 1 Kinematics 3 2 Dynamics 37 3 Rigid bodies 93 4 Gravitation and the theory of relativity 129 5 Mechanics of continuous media 153 6 Nonlinear dynamics, chaos and fractals 211 Formula symbols used in mechanics 229 7 Tables on mechanics 231 Part II Vibrations andWaves 253 8 Vibrations 255 9 Waves 287 10 Acoustics 311 11 Optics 335 12 Tables on vibrations, waves, acoustics and optics 409 Part III Electricity 419 13 Charges and currents 421 14 Electric and magnetic fields 439 15 Applications in electrical engineering 501. 16 Current conduction in liquids, gases and vacuum 551 17 Plasma physics 573 Symbols used in formulae on electricity and plasma physics 593 18 Tables on electricity 595 Part IV Thermodynamics 621 19 Equilibrium and state variables 623 20 Heat, conversion of energy and changes of state 675 21 Phase transitions, reactions and equalizing of heat 717 Formula symbols used in thermodynamics 771 22 Tables on thermodynamics 775 Part V Quantum physics 815 23 Photons, electromagnetic radiation and light quanta 817 24 Matter waves—wave mechanics of particles 825 25 Atomic and molecular physics 851 26 Elementary particle physics—standard model 883 27 Nuclear physics 907 28 Solid-state physics 967 Formula symbols used in quantum physics 1065 29 Tables in quantum physics 1071 Part VI Appendix 1095 30 Measurements and measurement errors 1097 31 Vector calculus 1115 32 Differential and integral calculus 1121 33 Tables on the SI 1125 Index 1131 Natural constants in SI units 1183 Thermodynamic formulas 1184 Periodic table 1186
15. Springer Handbook of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 原子手冊:分子物理與光學物理
Table of Contents:
List of Tables ............... XLVII List of Abbreviations ............... LV 1 Units and Constants Part A Mathematical Methods 2 Angular Momentum Theory 3 Group Theory for Atomic Shells 4 Dynamical Groups 5 Perturbation Theory 6 Second Quantization 7 Density Matrices 8 Computational Techniques 9 Hydrogenic Wave Functions Part B Atoms 10 Atomic Spectroscopy 11 High Precision Calculations for Helium 12 Atomic Multipoles 13 Atoms in Strong Fields 14 Rydberg Atoms 15 Rydberg Atoms in Strong Static Fields 16 Hyperfine Structure 17 Precision Oscillator Strength and Lifetime Measurements 18 Spectroscopy of Ions Using Fast Beams and Ion Traps 19 Line Shapes and Radiation Transfer 20 Thomas–Fermi and Other Density-Functional Theories 21 Atomic Structure: Multiconfiguration Hartree–Fock Theories 22 Relativistic Atomic Structure 23 Many-Body Theory of Atomic Structure and Processes 24 Photoionization of Atoms 25 Autoionization 26 Green’s Functions of Field Theory 27 Quantum Electrodynamics 28 Tests of Fundamental Physics 29 Parity Nonconserving Effects in Atoms 30 Atomic Clocks and Constraints on Variations of Fundamental Constants Part C Molecules 31 Molecular Structure 32 Molecular Symmetry and Dynamics 33 Radiative Transition Probabilities 34 Molecular Photodissociation 35 Time-Resolved Molecular Dynamics 36 Nonreactive Scattering 37 Gas Phase Reactions 38 Gas Phase Ionic Reactions 39 Clusters 40 Infrared Spectroscopy 41 Laser Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Regions 42 Spectroscopic Techniques: Lasers 43 Spectroscopic Techniques: Cavity-Enhanced Methods 44 Spectroscopic Techniques: Ultraviolet Part D Scattering Theory 45 Elastic Scattering: Classical, Quantal, and Semiclassical 46 Orientation and Alignment in Atomic and Molecular Collisions 47 Electron–Atom, Electron–Ion, and Electron–Molecule Collisions 48 Positron Collisions 49 Adiabatic and Diabatic Collision Processes at Low Energies 50 Ion–Atom and Atom–Atom Collisions 51 Ion–Atom Charge Transfer Reactions at Low Energies 52 Continuum Distorted Wave and Wannier Methods 53 Ionization in High Energy Ion–Atom Collisions 54 Electron–Ion and Ion–Ion Recombination 55 Dielectronic Recombination 56 Rydberg Collisions: Binary Encounter, Born and Impulse Approximations 57 Mass Transfer at High Energies: Thomas Peak 58 Classical Trajectory and Monte Carlo Techniques 59 Collisional Broadening of Spectral Lines Part E Scattering Experiments 61 Photon–Atom Interactions: Low Energy 62 Photon–Atom Interactions: Intermediate Energies 63 Electron–Atom and Electron–Molecule Collisions 64 Ion–Atom Scattering Experiments: Low Energy 65 Ion–Atom Collisions – High Energy 66 Reactive Scattering 67 Ion–Molecule Reactions Part F Quantum Optics 68 Light–Matter Interaction 69 Absorption and Gain Spectra 70 Laser Principles 71 Types of Lasers 72 Nonlinear Optics 73 Coherent Transients 74 Multiphoton and Strong-Field Processes 75 Cooling and Trapping 76 Quantum Degenerate Gases 77 De Broglie Optics 78 Quantized Field Effects 79 Entangled Atoms and Fields: Cavity QED 80 Quantum Optical Tests of the Foundations of Physics 81 Quantum Information Part G Applications 82 Applications of Atomic and Molecular Physics to Astrophysics 83 Comets 84 Aeronomy 85 Applications of Atomic and Molecular Physics to Global Change 86 Atoms in Dense Plasmas 87 Conduction of Electricity in Gases 88 Applications to Combustion 89 Surface Physics 90 Interface with Nuclear Physics 91 Charged-Particle–Matter Interactions 92 Radiation Physics Acknowledgements ............... 1401 About the Authors ............... 1405 Detailed Contents ............... 1425 Subject Index ............... 1471
16. Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data 凝態物質資料手冊
Table of Contents:
List of Abbreviations ............... XV Part 1 General Tables 1 The Fundamental Constants Werner Martienssen ............... 3 1.1 What are the Fundamental Constants and Who Takes Care of Them? ............... 3 1.2 The CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Constants ............... 4 2 The International System of Units (SI), Physical Quantities, and Their Dimensions Werner Martienssen ............... 11 2.1 The International System of Units (SI) ............... 11 2.2 Physical Quantities ............... 12 2.3 The SI Base Units ............... 13 2.4 The SI Derived Units ............... 16 2.5 Decimal Multiples and Submultiples of SI Units ............... 19 2.6 Units Outside the SI ............... 20 2.7 Some Energy Equivalents ............... 24 3 Rudiments of Crystallography Wolf Assmus, Stefan Brühne ............... 27 3.1 Crystalline Materials ............... 28 3.2 Disorder ............... 38 3.3 Amorphous Materials ............... 39 3.4 Methods for Investigating Crystallographic Structure ............... 39 Part 2 The Elements 1 The Elements Werner Martienssen ............... 45 1.1 Introduction ............... 45 1.2 Description of Properties Tabulated ............... 46 1.3 Sources ............... 49 1.4 Tables of the Elements in Different Orders ............... 49 1.5 Data ............... 54 Part 3 Classes of Materials 1 Metals Frank Goodwin, Sivaraman Guruswamy, Karl U. Kainer, Catrin Kammer, Wolfram Knabl, Alfred Koethe, Gerhard Leichtfried, Günther Schlamp, Roland Stickler, Hans Warlimont ............... 161 1.1 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys ............... 162 1.2 Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys ............... 171 1.3 Titanium and Titanium Alloys ............... 206 1.4 Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys ............... 217 1.5 Iron and Steels ............... 221 1.6 Cobalt and Cobalt Alloys ............... 272 1.7 Nickel and Nickel Alloys ............... 279 1.8 Copper and Copper Alloys ............... 296 1.9 Refractory Metals and Alloys ............... 303 1.10 Noble Metals and Noble Metal Alloys ............... 329 1.11 Lead and Lead Alloys ............... 407 2 Ceramics Hans Warlimont ............... 431 2.1 Traditional Ceramics and Cements ............... 432 2.2 Silicate Ceramics ............... 433 2.3 Refractory Ceramics ............... 437 2.4 Oxide Ceramics ............... 437 2.5 Non-Oxide Ceramics ............... 451 3 Polymers Manfred D. Lechner ............... 477 3.1 Structural Units of Polymers ............... 480 3.2 Abbreviations ............... 482 3.3 Tables and Figures ............... 483 4 Glasses Dieter Krouse ............... 523 4.1 Properties of Glasses – General Comments ............... 526 4.2 Composition and Properties of Glasses ............... 527 4.3 Flat Glass and Hollowware ............... 528 4.4 Technical Specialty Glasses ............... 530 4.5 Optical Glasses ............... 543 4.6 Vitreous Silica ............... 556 4.7 Glass-Ceramics ............... 558 4.8 Glasses for Miscellaneous Applications ............... 559 Part 4 Functional Materials 1 Semiconductors Werner Martienssen ............... 575 1.1 Group IV Semiconductors and IV–IV Compounds ............... 578 1.2 III–V Compounds ............... 604 1.3 II–VI Compounds ............... 652 2 Superconductors Claus Fischer, Günter Fuchs, Bernhard Holzapfel, Barbara Schüpp-Niewa, Hans Warlimont ............... 695 2.1 Metallic Superconductors ............... 696 2.2 Non-Metallic Superconductors ............... 711 3 Magnetic Materials Hideki Harada, Manfred Müller, Hans Warlimont ............... 755 3.1 Basic Magnetic Properties ............... 755 3.2 Soft Magnetic Alloys ............... 758 3.3 Hard Magnetic Alloys ............... 794 3.4 Magnetic Oxides ............... 811 4 Dielectrics and Electrooptics Gagik G. Gurzadyan, Pancho Tzankov............... 817 4.1 Dielectric Materials: Low-Frequency Properties ............... 822 4.2 Optical Materials: High-Frequency Properties ............... 824 4.3 Guidelines for Use of Tables ............... 826 4.4 Tables of Numerical Data for Dielectrics and Electrooptics ............... 828 5 Ferroelectrics and Antiferroelectrics Toshio Mitsui ............... 903 5.1 Definition of Ferroelectrics and Antiferroelectrics ............... 903 5.2 Survey of Research on Ferroelectrics ............... 904 5.3 Classification of Ferroelectrics ............... 906 5.4 Physical Properties of 43 Representative Ferroelectrics ............... 912 Part 5 Special Structures 1 Liquid Crystals Sergei Pestov, Volkmar Vill ............... 941 1.1 Liquid Crystalline State ............... 941 1.2 Physical Properties of the Most Common Liquid Crystalline Substances 946 1.3 Physical Properties of Some Liquid Crystalline Mixtures ............... 975 2 The Physics of Solid Surfaces Gianfranco Chiarotti ............... 979 2.1 The Structure of Ideal Surfaces ............... 979 2.2 Surface Reconstruction and Relaxation ............... 986 2.3 Electronic Structure of Surfaces ............... 996 2.4 Surface Phonons ............... 1012 2.5 The Space Charge Layer at the Surface of a Semiconductor ............... 1020 2.6 Most Frequently Used Acronyms ............... 1026 3 Mesoscopic and Nanostructured Materials Fabrice Charra, Susana Gota-Goldmann ............... 1031 3.1 Introduction and Survey ............... 1031 3.2 Electronic Structure and Spectroscopy ............... 1035 3.3 Electromagnetic Confinement ............... 1044 3.4 Magnetic Nanostructures ............... 1048 3.5 Preparation Techniques ............... 1063 Acknowledgements............... 1073 About the Authors............... 1075 Detailed Contents............... 1081 Subject Index............... 109
17. Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials 電子光子物質手冊
Table of Contents:
List of Abbreviations ............... XXIX Introduction 1 Perspectives on Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials ............... 3 Part A Fundamental Properties 2 Electrical Conduction in Metals and Semiconductors ............... 19 3 Optical Properties of Electronic Materials: Fundamentals and Characterization ............... 47 4 Magnetic Properties of Electronic Materials ............... 79 5 Defects in Monocrystalline Silicon ............... 101 6 Diffusion in Semiconductors ............... 121 7 Photoconductivity in Materials Research ............... 137 8 Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Interfaces ............... 147 9 Charge Transport in Disordered Materials ............... 161 10 Dielectric Response ............... 187 11 Ionic Conduction and Applications ............... 213 Part B Growth and Characterization 12 Bulk Crystal Growth – Methods and Materials ............... 231 13 Single-Crystal Silicon: Growth and Properties ............... 255 14 Epitaxial Crystal Growth: Methods and Materials ............... 271 15 Narrow-Bandgap II–VI Semiconductors: Growth ............... 303 16 Wide-Bandgap II–VI Semiconductors: Growth and Properties ............... 325 17 Structural Characterization ............... 343 18 Surface Chemical Analysis ............... 373 19 Thermal Properties and Thermal Analysis: Fundamentals, Experimental Techniques and Applications ............... 385 20 Electrical Characterization of Semiconductor Materials and Devices ............... 409 Part C Materials for Electronics 21 Single-Crystal Silicon: Electrical and Optical Properties ............... 441 22 Silicon–Germanium: Properties, Growth and Applications ............... 481 23 Gallium Arsenide ............... 499 24 High-Temperature Electronic Materials: Silicon Carbide and Diamond ............... 537 25 Amorphous Semiconductors: Structure, Optical, and Electrical Properties ............... 565 26 Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon ............... 581 27 Ferroelectric Materials ............... 597 28 Dielectric Materials for Microelectronics ............... 625 29 Thin Films ............... 659 30 Thick Films ............... 717 Part D Materials for Optoelectronics and Photonics 31 III-V Ternary and Quaternary Compounds ............... 735 32 Group III Nitrides ............... 753 33 Electron Transport Within the III–V Nitride Semiconductors, GaN, AlN, and InN: A Monte Carlo Analysis ............... 805 34 II–IV Semiconductors for Optoelectronics: CdS, CdSe, CdTe ............... 829 35 Doping Aspects of Zn-Based Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors ............... 843 36 II–VI Narrow-Bandgap Semiconductors for Optoelectronics ............... 855 37 Optoelectronic Devices and Materials ............... 887 38 Liquid Crystals ............... 917 39 Organic Photoconductors ............... 953 40 Luminescent Materials ............... 983 41 Nano-Engineered Tunable Photonic Crystals in the Near-IR and Visible Electromagnetic Spectrum ............... 997 42 Quantum Wells, Superlattices, and Band-Gap Engineering ............... 1021 43 Glasses for Photonic Integration ............... 1041 44 Optical Nonlinearity in Photonic Glasses ............... 1063 45 Nonlinear Optoelectronic Materials ............... 1075 Part E Novel Materials and Selected Applications 46 Solar Cells and Photovoltaics ............... 1095 47 Silicon on Mechanically Flexible Substrates for Large-Area Electronics ............... 1107 48 Photoconductors for X-Ray Image Detectors ............... 1121 49 Phase-Change Optical Recording ............... 1139 50 Carbon Nanotubes and Bucky Materials ............... 1147 51 Magnetic Information-Storage Materials ............... 1155 52 High-Temperature Superconductors ............... 1193 53 Molecular Electronics ............... 1219 54 Organic Materials for Chemical Sensing ............... 1241 55 Packaging Materials ............... 1267 Acknowledgements ............... 1287 About the Authors ............... 1291 Detailed Contents ............... 1307 Glossary of Defining Terms ............... 1333
18. Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics 雷射光學手冊
Table of Contents:
List of Abbreviations ............... XXIII Part A Basic Principles and Materials 1 The Properties of Light 2 Geometrical Optics 3 Wave Optics 4 Nonlinear Optics 5 Optical Materials and Their Properties 6 Thin Film Optical Coatings Part B Fabrication and Properties of Optical Components 7 Optical Design and Stray Light Concepts and Principles 8 Advanced Optical Components 9 Optical Detectors Part C Coherent and Incoherent Light Sources 10 Incoherent Light Sources 11 Lasers and Coherent Light Sources 12 Femtosecond Laser Pulses: Linear Properties, Manipulation, Generation and Measurement Part D Selected Applications and Special Fields 13 Optical and Spectroscopic Techniques 14 Quantum Optics 15 Nanooptics 16 Optics far Beyond the Diffraction Limit: Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy 17 Ultrafast THz Photonics and Applications 18 X-Ray Optics 19 Radiation and Optics in the Atmosphere 20 Holography and Optical Storage 21 Laser Safety Acknowledgements ............... 1277 About the Authors ............... 1279 Detailed Contents ............... 1295 Subject Index ............... 1313
19. Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology 2ed 奈米技術手冊
Table of Contents:
List of Abbreviations ............... XLI Introduction 1 Introduction to Nanotechnology Part A Nanostructures, Micro/Nanofabrication and Materials 2 Nanomaterials Synthesis and Applications: Molecule-Based Devices 3 Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes 4 Nanowires 5 Template-Based Synthesis of Nanorod or Nanowire Arrays 6 Three-Dimensional Nanostructure Fabrication by Focused Ion Beam Chemical Vapor Deposition 7 Introduction to Micro/Nanofabrication 8 Nanoimprint Lithography 9 Stamping Techniques for Micro- and Nanofabrication 10 Material Aspects of Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Systems 11 Complexity and Emergence as Design Principles for Engineering Decentralized Nanoscale Systems 12 Nanometer-Scale Thermoelectric Materials 13 Nano- and Microstructured Semiconductor Materials for Macroelectronics Part B MEMS/NEMS and BioMEMS/NEMS 14 Next-Generation DNA Hybridization and Self-Assembly Nanofabrication Devices 15 MEMS/NEMS Devices and Applications 16 Nanomechanical Cantilever Array Sensors 17 Therapeutic Nanodevices 18 G-Protein Coupled Receptors: Surface Display and Biosensor Technology 19 Microfluidics and Their Applications to Lab-on-a-Chip 20 Centrifuge-Based Fluidic Platforms 21 Micro/Nanodroplets in Microfluidic Devices Part C Scanning Probe Microscopy 22 Scanning Probe Microscopy – Principle of Operation, Instrumentation, and Probes 23 Probes in Scanning Microscopies 24 Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy and Related Topics 25 Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscopy 26 Higher-Harmonic Force Detection in Dynamic Force Microscopy 27 Dynamic Modes of Atomic Force Microscopy 28 Molecular Recognition Force Microscopy: From Simple Bonds to Complex Energy Landscapes Part D Nanotribology and Nanomechanics 29 Nanotribology, Nanomechanics and Materials Characterization 30 Surface Forces and Nanorheology of Molecularly Thin Films 31 Interfacial Forces and Spectroscopic Study of Confined Fluids 32 Scanning Probe Studies of Nanoscale Adhesion Between Solids in the Presence of Liquids and Monolayer Films 33 Friction and Wear on the Atomic Scale 34 Velocity Dependence of Nanoscale Friction, Adhesion and Wear 35 Computer Simulations of Nanometer-Scale Indentation and Friction 36 Nanoscale Mechanical Properties – Measuring Techniques and Applications 37 Nanomechanical Properties of Solid Surfaces and Thin Films 38 Scale Effect in Mechanical Properties and Tribology 39 Mechanics of Biological Nanotechnology 40 Structural, Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Characterization of Human Hair Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation 41 Mechanical Properties of Nanostructures Part E Molecularly Thick Films for Lubrication 42 Nanotribology of Ultrathin and Hard Amorphous Carbon Films 43 Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) for Controlling Adhesion, Friction, and Wear 44 Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication Studies 45 Kinetics and Energetics in Nanolubrication Part F Industrial Applications 46 The “Millipede” – A Nanotechnology-Based AFM Data-Storage System 47 Nanotechnology for Data Storage Applications 48 Microactuators for Dual-Stage Servo Systems in Magnetic Disk Files 49 Nanorobotics Part G Micro/Nanodevice Reliability 50 Nanotribology and Materials Characterization of MEMS/NEMS and BioMEMS/BioNEMS Materials and Devices 51 Experimental Characterization Techniques for Micro/Nanoscale Devices 52 Failure Mechanisms in MEMS/NEMS Devices 53 Mechanical Properties of Micromachined Structures 54 Thermo- and Electromechanical Behavior of Thin-Film Micro and Nanostructures 55 High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products 56 Packaging and Reliability Issues in Micro/Nano Systems Part H Technological Convergence and Governing Nanotechnology 57 Technological Convergence from the Nanoscale 58 Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues Acknowledgements ............... 1841 About the Authors ............... 1845 Subject Index ............... 1877
20. Springer Handbook of Robotics 機器人學手冊
Table of Contents:
List of Abbreviations................................................................................. LIII Introduction Part A Robotics Foundations 1 Kinematics 2 Dynamics 3 Mechanisms and Actuation 4 Sensing and Estimation 5 Motion Planning 6 Motion Control 7 Force Control 8 Robotic Systems Architectures and Programming 9 AI Reasoning Methods for Robotics Part B Robot Structures 10 Performance Evaluation and Design Criteria 11 Kinematically Redundant Manipulators 12 Parallel Mechanisms and Robots 13 Robots with Flexible Elements 14 Model Identification 15 Robot Hands 16 Legged Robots 17 Wheeled Robots 18 Micro/Nanorobots Part C Sensing and Perception 19 Force and Tactile Sensors 20 Inertial Sensors, GPS, and Odometry 21 Sonar Sensing 22 Range Sensors 23 3-D Vision and Recognition 24 Visual Servoing and Visual Tracking 25 Multisensor Data Fusion Part D Manipulation and Interfaces 26 Motion for Manipulation Tasks 27 Contact Modeling and Manipulation 28 Grasping 29 Cooperative Manipulators 30 Haptics 31 Telerobotics 32 Networked Telerobots 33 Exoskeletons for Human Performance Augmentation Part E Mobile and Distributed Robotics 34 Motion Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots 35 Motion Planning and Obstacle Avoidance 36 World Modeling 37 Simultaneous Localization and Mapping 38 Behavior-Based Systems 39 Distributed and Cellular Robots 40 Multiple Mobile Robot Systems 41 Networked Robots Part F Field and Service Robotics 42 Industrial Robotics 43 Underwater Robotics 44 Aerial Robotics 45 Space Robots and Systems 46 Robotics in Agriculture and Forestry 47 Robotics in Construction 48 Robotics in Hazardous Applications 49 Mining Robotics 50 Search and Rescue Robotics 51 Intelligent Vehicles 52 Medical Robotics and Computer-Integrated Surgery 53 Rehabilitation and Health Care Robotics 54 Domestic Robotics 55 Robots for Education Part G Human-Centered and Life-Like Robotics 57 Safety for Physical Human–Robot Interaction 58 Social Robots that Interact with People 59 Robot Programming by Demonstration 60 Biologically Inspired Robots 61 Evolutionary Robotics 62 Neurorobotics: From Vision to Action 63 Perceptual Robotics 64 Roboethics: Social and Ethical Implications of Robotics Acknowledgements................................................................................... 1525 About the Authors..................................................................................... 1527 Detailed Contents...................................................................................... 1555 Subject Index............................................................................................. 1591